Wednesday, 15 September 2010

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)


The war began because:

  • England wanted France's land and France wanted England's land.
  • France didn't like the fact that England ruled a large part of France.
The Battle of Crecy(1346)
This took place in northern France. Historians consider this battle as the beginning of the end(終焉の始まり) of classic chivalry(騎士道).

The Battle of Calais(1347)
After winning the battle of Crecy, the English army marched(行進) to Calais and began a siege(包囲攻撃) which lasted a year. England turned it into a military base(拠点) and it remained in England's hands until 1558.

The Battle of Poitiers(1356)
This happened because Edward and the Black Prince attacked France. King John II of France chased after Edward and this caused two forces to meet outside Poitiers. France nearly won but England won in the end.

The Battle of Harfleur(1415)
Henry V landed in France with about 10,000 men in the summer of 1415. This battle lasted for about a month. Although England won, the army was severely depleted(枯渇した) mainly from illness.

The Battle of Agincourt(1415)
Henry marched his force of about 6,000 knights(騎士) and archers(射手) towards Calais. During this time, the French army of 20,000 managed to position itself between Henry and Calais.
Joan De Ark(1412-1431)

Around 1429, Joan appeared at the court of Charles VII. Charles allowed Joan to lead a relief force(援軍) in April to Orléans. In May, Joan attacked the English at Orléans. She drove the English from their positions. The next day they abandoned the siege. This meant that military advantage now lay with the French.

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