Monday, 30 April 2012

Studying psychology again.

P180 2. Think about a study in psychology and imagine that it had used subject groups of different ethnic backgrounds. In what way do you think the results would have been different?

Jeez I can't think of a study...

If the electric shock by Milgram was done in Japan, it may have resulted in a greater number of people obeying the authority. This is because collectivistic cultures tend to work hard for the success of the group and electrocuting the other person until the end will have resulted in the "success" of conducting the experiment.

P17 1. Why did people obey the authority?

The experiment was done in Yale university where most people would regard as a reliable institution where meaningful experiments are done and therefore taking part in the experiment (thereby obeying the authority) would make sense.
Also the subjects were paid to take part in the experiment (although it was made clear that they will receive the money whether or not they complete the experiment). This caused obligation to continue electrocuting the other person.
The experiment seemed to serve a legitimate purpose and not obeying (dropping out half way) would let down the authority as well as causing disturbance in the development of science.

2. What are the advantages of obedience to the individual and to society?

As an individual, it makes it easier to take control over another person.
Less aggravation (苛立たせるもの) and more acceptance. 
For society, there will be no pressure to change and will be peaceful. Greater social order.

3. What are the disadvantages of obedience to the individual and to society?

Individuals may manipulate another person and make them do things that they don't want to. Less control of your own behaviour.
Not having the pressure to change is not always a good thing.

4. If this study was done in the same way today, what ethical pguidelines would it be breaking?

The responsibility to protect subjects from physical and psychological harm.
Not deceiving the subject.
Giving the full, honest informed consent.
Right to withdraw. (it was made clear that they can withdraw at any time but the way the experiment was done made it seem like they can't withdraw.)
Offered financial incentives to behave in ways they might not have approved of.

P204 4. What problems with the case-study method does this study highlight?

A case study does not give sufficient date in order to generalize. It takes a lot of time an effort and is therefore  expensive.

P235 1. Identify the cultural and educational bias in the examples of the Alpha questions contained in the summary, and in the Beta items shown in Fig 9.1.

Alpha questions have cultural bias because the answer is not clear unless you are familiar with American culture and general knowledge. The questions are impossible to answer if the candidate is illiterate, which in this case, many people were.
Beta questions also have cultural bias because not everybody at the time of the experiment were familiar with tennis or record players or whatever no. 17 is supposed to represent. The question is stupid.

2. What is scientific racism?
It is racism what is based on ridiculous interpretations of scientific data. In the case of the experiment by Gould, the experiment itself was conducted in an unfair manner which led to extremely inaccurate results. Psychologists should be aware of the fact that their data and interpretation can lead to a biased public view on something such as race and gender. They should be super careful.

3. What is intelligence?

It has many definitions. It may be the ability to adapt to an environment or it could be how fast you can solve a problem.


River Exe Flooding

Looks like sea from our accommodation!

P315 1. Identify some advantages of controlled lab studies of memory.

It is easier to tell the cause and effect because the variables are strictly controlled.
Ability to make casual inferences (going beyond what we know to make an intelligent guess). The responses are clear and unambiguous. Can be replicated.

2. Identify some disadvantages of controlled lab studies of memory.

It has low ecological validity. We rarely try to memorize meaningless sequences of numbers.
The information may be memorized in an unnatural way. We don't usually repeat meaningless numbers.

3. What are the main causes of distortion in memory according to Bartlett?

Information from the external world has to be interpreted to either be stored in the LTM or go through semantic processing. Memorization doesn't occur in a photographic way. Rather, our perception of the information is stored so that the information is actually useful and relevant to us.

P320 1.What are the 3 stores that make up memory within the multi-store model?
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory.

2. What are the most important ways in which the 3 stores are differentiate from each other?

The capacity. LTM is unlimited, STM is 7 pieces of info, Sensory is very limited,

3. What might be a suitable alternative word for depth?
Effort. Time.

GAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH Tomorrow is writing test... HAVEN'T PREPARED AT ALL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Think you'll find this interesting.

link about fukushima.

Sunday, 29 April 2012

Taking a break from studying psychology....

So I'll make a change from writing on a paper and write all about what I've studied so far on this blog. Pretty boring stuff but the exam is on Friday...
The red bits are things that i had to look at my notes.

Biological psychology
It assumes human behavior is caused by genetics and the brain. Abnormal behavior is caused by the imbalance of chemicals in the brain or mutated genes. The human brain is basically an information processor. The application is the development of medical drugs. It uses lab experiments and therefore has low ecological validity. It is time consuming and expensive. It uses scientific methods and is fairly reliable. Deterministic. Nature. Nomothetic. Reductionist.

It is defined as:
statistical infrequency,
deviation from social norms,
deviation from ideal mental health,
unable to function adequately.
Abnormality is not a synonym for undesirability and should not be used as a reason for discrimination. Being statistically infrequent does not necessarily mean it is a problem (i.e. heroism). Cultural differences for what "norm" is should also be taken into consideration. Norm differs according to the time frame as well.

Bartlett suggests that memory is not a photographic copy of the external world but our interpretation of it and is an active process.
The first theory of how memorization works was devised by Atkinson and Shifferin and it is called the Multi Store Model. External stimuli enter into the sensory memory as visual or auditory information. There is numerous information coming into the sensory memory and if it isn't a useful or relevant info, it will instantly be forgotten. If that info is paid attention to, it will then be stored in the short term memory. This storage has a limited capacity of 7 pieces of info at a time. After rehearsal, it will be stored in the long term memory. If the info in the STM is not rehearsed, it will be forgotten. The LTM on the other hand has unlimited capacity and can be retrieved to the consciousness by going through the STM.
This theory is criticized for having low ecological validity because we do not usually rehearse information to remember it in long term.
Considering this criticism, Craik and Lockhart came up with the Level of Processing theory. It suggests that how deeply the info was processed is more important than the storage capacity. The shallowest processing is physical processing, which is visual (whether the word is written in black or red), followed by Phonemic processing (auditory) and semantic processing (thinking about the meaning of the info).
The cocktail party effect corresponds with the sensory memory storage. When someone mentions your name in a noisy place when you were engaging in a conversation with a different group of people, you will be able to pick up on it, The theory suggests this is because the info (your name) passed the sensory storage and your mind picked it up.

Perception is how we make sense of the world. When external information enters, it is perceived. This can be done by top-down processing or bottom up processing.
Top-down processing is to make sense of info using past experience because the external world does not provide information of how to perceive it. (ok i don't have a clue what i'm writing here)
Bottom-up processing means the environment gives all the information you need in order to know how to perceive it?????????? WTF????????
I remember writing "perceptual set" in my notes without knowing what the hell it is.

Cognitive psychology
It deals with abstract concepts which no one cares about like memory and perception and thinks about how the mind works. Research is based on self report so is less reliable. It derived from Gestult psychology which says that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. It deals with things that behavioral psychology (only looks at observable behavior) does not focus on.   Applications in real life are cognitive therapy which tries to accept the negative thinking and replaces it with positive ones.

Determinism/Free will
Deterministic psychology thinks that our behaviour is pre-determined by genes and the environment so we are not responsible for our actions. Free will, on the other hand, thinks that every action we take is due to our own choice to act that way.

It is a debate whether we are "born this way" (nature) or the environment/external factors have "made us this way."

A nomothtic way to research is basically to do case study. You study an individual, and generalize. Ideographic way is to research a lot of people (eg by questionnaire) and generalize.

Reductionism is to simplify a behaviour into managable parts. This may have the tendency to make it oversimplified but makes it more easy to understand. A holistic approach on the other hand is to see the action as a whole, Whatever that means.

Autism is a developmental disability where a person may show a lower than average IQ, delay in language, communication difficulty, sometimes difficulty in movement. They may show limited interests/actions and this disability is mostly detected before the age of 3. Asperger's syndrome is a kind of autism but does not have a delay in language and has an above average IQ. Some people with autism show extreme talent in a specific subject.
Autistic people are thought to not have a theory of mind which is the appreciation that other people have independent minds of their own. This idea is supported by the "Sally and Anne" experiment conducted by someone really intelligent enough to some up with it. ;P

Behavioral Psychology
This focuses only on behavior. It tries to be scientific by thinking that the mind is irrelevant and psychological problems can be over come by conditioning. It thinks that our behavior is the response for a particular stimulus.
Classical conditioning was done by Ivan Pavlov. He made a dog drool by ringing a bell. How nice. It is a conditioning where a stimulus is associated to a  response by doing it over and over again.
Operant conditioning is when the subject learns a response by reinforcement.

It is another thing that has yet to have an agreed definition. It may be the ability to adapt to an environment. Or the speed to process information. There are numerous intelligence tests based on these definitions. All the tests should:
not be culture specific
be universal
test one skill at a time
test what it's supposed to test
not be biased.
The first intelligence testing was done in the US in order to know who was qualified to a certain position in the army. It ended up causing scientific racism because the result was that new immigrants did not know the answer to culture specific questions and there were an unexpected number of illiterate people (mostly black people).

Psychodynamic psychology
It was devised by Sigmund Freud. It started with structuralism which looks at the self with introspection which evolved into functionalism and this became psychodynamic psy. This was significant because it made psychology popular and gave some key insights into what goes on in people's minds. Our mind is made up of id (primary animal desires that wants to be fulfilled with whatever means possible), ego (moral) and superego (conscience). Id and superego is always in conflict and ego negotiates between the two. Id is constantly in the unconscious. Our personality develops in  sexual stages which I don't even want to memorize because its ridiculous and its probably not going to be in the test.
One criticism is that the theory is impossible to prove wrong. Freudian psychologists will always have a clever way of saying it's correct.
Psychological problems are caused mainly by childhood experiences because that is what influences our behavior when we are adults. Childhood problems are suppressed into the unconscious which causes problems later in life. We use defense mechanisms to get through tough times. Like emotional eating, which I should stop doing!

OK I'm done.

Sourdough Bread SUCCESS!!!!!

It doesn't look as good as I wanted but the texture, crust, crumb, colour, holes, TASTE came out really good. Not gooey like before, crunchy on the outside. Very satisfied! It tastes kind of sweet in a bread sort of way. Not like the mass produced bread from Tesco. It took 3 whole weeks to get here!!!!!!!
My sourdough adventure: 

Wednesday, 25 April 2012

Monday, 23 April 2012

The awkward moment when...

...your sourdough starter is more happier than you are.

Sunday, 15 April 2012

My first sourdough bread (FAIL)

Really dense and gooey inside (fail), crunchy crust on the outside (Success).

Wednesday, 11 April 2012

Easter holidays

The holidays are going to end in 5 days. What have I been doing after the leadership programme (took place for 4 days from last monday)...


I've been in my room trying to sort out the psychology essay and trying to revise for the exams that are coming up in the 1st week of May. And watching documentaries on BBC 4 on Demand (more commonly known as 4oD). I haven't talked to another human being since my parents called on Saturday. And I try to keep telling myself that I have friends. I mean, I have 234 friends on facebook. But it doesn't mean I have friends in real life. If I did, I'd not be in my room all day. And how sad is it that the only people who comment on my posts on facebook are my mum, dad and my best friend's (friends since 2002) mother?

Sunday, 8 April 2012

Its one thing to know your angry and not knowing.

Its one thing to know your numb and its another thing to be too numb to not know.

I don't understand how people can possibly be happy. I just don't get it.

Wednesday, 4 April 2012

Gay pride parade and spring in the UK (boring videos and shit)

Couldnt be bothered to caption these shit.