Monday, 30 April 2012

Studying psychology again.

P180 2. Think about a study in psychology and imagine that it had used subject groups of different ethnic backgrounds. In what way do you think the results would have been different?

Jeez I can't think of a study...

If the electric shock by Milgram was done in Japan, it may have resulted in a greater number of people obeying the authority. This is because collectivistic cultures tend to work hard for the success of the group and electrocuting the other person until the end will have resulted in the "success" of conducting the experiment.

P17 1. Why did people obey the authority?

The experiment was done in Yale university where most people would regard as a reliable institution where meaningful experiments are done and therefore taking part in the experiment (thereby obeying the authority) would make sense.
Also the subjects were paid to take part in the experiment (although it was made clear that they will receive the money whether or not they complete the experiment). This caused obligation to continue electrocuting the other person.
The experiment seemed to serve a legitimate purpose and not obeying (dropping out half way) would let down the authority as well as causing disturbance in the development of science.

2. What are the advantages of obedience to the individual and to society?

As an individual, it makes it easier to take control over another person.
Less aggravation (苛立たせるもの) and more acceptance. 
For society, there will be no pressure to change and will be peaceful. Greater social order.

3. What are the disadvantages of obedience to the individual and to society?

Individuals may manipulate another person and make them do things that they don't want to. Less control of your own behaviour.
Not having the pressure to change is not always a good thing.

4. If this study was done in the same way today, what ethical pguidelines would it be breaking?

The responsibility to protect subjects from physical and psychological harm.
Not deceiving the subject.
Giving the full, honest informed consent.
Right to withdraw. (it was made clear that they can withdraw at any time but the way the experiment was done made it seem like they can't withdraw.)
Offered financial incentives to behave in ways they might not have approved of.

P204 4. What problems with the case-study method does this study highlight?

A case study does not give sufficient date in order to generalize. It takes a lot of time an effort and is therefore  expensive.

P235 1. Identify the cultural and educational bias in the examples of the Alpha questions contained in the summary, and in the Beta items shown in Fig 9.1.

Alpha questions have cultural bias because the answer is not clear unless you are familiar with American culture and general knowledge. The questions are impossible to answer if the candidate is illiterate, which in this case, many people were.
Beta questions also have cultural bias because not everybody at the time of the experiment were familiar with tennis or record players or whatever no. 17 is supposed to represent. The question is stupid.

2. What is scientific racism?
It is racism what is based on ridiculous interpretations of scientific data. In the case of the experiment by Gould, the experiment itself was conducted in an unfair manner which led to extremely inaccurate results. Psychologists should be aware of the fact that their data and interpretation can lead to a biased public view on something such as race and gender. They should be super careful.

3. What is intelligence?

It has many definitions. It may be the ability to adapt to an environment or it could be how fast you can solve a problem.


River Exe Flooding

Looks like sea from our accommodation!

P315 1. Identify some advantages of controlled lab studies of memory.

It is easier to tell the cause and effect because the variables are strictly controlled.
Ability to make casual inferences (going beyond what we know to make an intelligent guess). The responses are clear and unambiguous. Can be replicated.

2. Identify some disadvantages of controlled lab studies of memory.

It has low ecological validity. We rarely try to memorize meaningless sequences of numbers.
The information may be memorized in an unnatural way. We don't usually repeat meaningless numbers.

3. What are the main causes of distortion in memory according to Bartlett?

Information from the external world has to be interpreted to either be stored in the LTM or go through semantic processing. Memorization doesn't occur in a photographic way. Rather, our perception of the information is stored so that the information is actually useful and relevant to us.

P320 1.What are the 3 stores that make up memory within the multi-store model?
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory.

2. What are the most important ways in which the 3 stores are differentiate from each other?

The capacity. LTM is unlimited, STM is 7 pieces of info, Sensory is very limited,

3. What might be a suitable alternative word for depth?
Effort. Time.

GAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH Tomorrow is writing test... HAVEN'T PREPARED AT ALL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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